Aging a mild state of fermentation typically occurs over several years in stored tobacco.
Agronomy a scientific study of agriculture. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science.
Air-Curing one of four main methods of curing, tobacco leaves are air-cured following their harvest. Air-cured tobacco is traditionally cured hanging in structures with a roof, but with open sides to allow air to freely circulate. The aim of air-curing is the timely removal of moisture from tobacco leaves. This process takes four to eight weeks.
ARIS Agricultural Research Information System of ICAR, India.
Blended Cigarettes which are made with a mixture of flue-cured, burley, and oriental tobacco.
BTRC Burley Tobacco Research Centre, Jeddangi.
Auction a process by which tobacco is sold by an auctioneer on a bid basis to a group of buyers. In India FCV tobacco is sold at auction platforms though tobacco board. The role of tobacco board is assuring a minimum supporting price to grade wise and protecting farmers from the highly fluctuating market price.
Bale a cube of tobacco weighs approximately 125 kilos. Tobacco is packaged in bales to facilitate storage and transport.
Bandelier the string onto which tobacco leaves must be threaded before they can be hung in a curing barn.
Bidding tobacco bales are auctioned bale by bale in the order of lot numbers. After the buyers take their positions, auctioneer announces the grade and the price. The guiding factor for setting the starting price is the grade, quality of tobacco, ruling price trend for such style and grade of tobacco.
Black Soils located in Prakasam and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh, nearer to the coast constitute the southern black soils.
Black Tobacco also called dark tobacco which is dark in color, strong in taste and primarily used in cigars.
Blade also known as the lamina or web, on a tobacco plant the extended part of the leaf that is divided from the base to the tip by the stem; its framework is provided by the veins that extend from the stem. This term is used to refer only to the blade itself—it does not include any portion of the stem. In contrast, the term whole leaf is used to refer to both the blade and stem of a leaf.
Blend a mixture of different types and/or grades of tobacco combined to produce a desired product. The purpose of creating a blend is to produce a quantity of tobacco that meets a customer's specifications of quality, flavor and aroma.
Blending the process of mixing different varieties and grades of tobacco to produce a predetermined and uniform blend that meets customer’s specification quality, flavor and aroma.
Bodied Tobacco leaves that grow on the upper half of the stalk; these leaves are thicker and heavier than the leaves that grow on the lower half of the stalk.
Body a term that refers to the thickness, density, or weight of a tobacco leaf. Body is one of several characteristics that together determine the quality of tobacco.
Breaking dividing tobacco leaves from a bale for inspection.
Bright Leaf also known as Virginia tobacco which are light yellow to dark orange in color and used mainly in cigarettes.
Bundle tobacco leaves held together prior to curing with a string.
Burley Tobacco a type of tobacco that is usually cured in the air cured manner and light brown to deep reddish-brown in color, with an aroma similar to cocoa. There are two types of burley: Filler type is generally light in body and neutral in flavor, while flavor type is similar in weight to flue-cured tobacco and has a stronger flavor.
Buyer someone who purchases tobacco at auction platforms for leaf merchants. Buyer shall obtain an authorization from the Tobacco Board to participate and purchase tobacco.
CBS Central Black Soils are located in Krishna and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Clean Tobacco which is relatively free of sand, soil, and non-tobacco related material. Tobacco leaves that grow on the upper portion of the stalk usually contain less sand and soil than those that grow on the lower portion of the stalk, closer to the ground.
Color the color of tobacco is a significant indicator of ripeness and overall quality. Monitoring color changes during ripening, curing, and fermentation plays a significant role in producing high-quality tobacco and tobacco products.
Conditioning also known as Ordering, tobacco moisture content is raised by the introduction of steam/water so that it will be pliable enough to withstand handling, processing, and manufacturing without breaking into smaller pieces. This process is typically done in a cylinder but new technologies are providing alternate methods.
CTRI Central Tobacco Research Institute for soil science and agriculture chemistry.
Curing immediately after harvesting, tobacco is cured to remove all of the natural sap from the leaves so that it can be further processed and manufactured. Curing process focuses on regulating the rate at which moisture is removed from the tobacco.
Curing Barn a structure in which the necessary conditions for curing tobacco can be created and controlled.
Cutters the largest leaves on a flue-cured tobacco plant, which are located near the middle of the stalk. Cutters are prized for their color, moisture content, and elasticity.
Fermentation is a chemical reaction caused by moisture and warm temperatures. It occurs when tobacco is in stags. In this process cured-tobacco gets uniform color and a milder taste.
Filler 1) Tobacco that has been blended and cut and, consequently, is ready to be used in cigarettes. The tobacco may have also been cased and flavored, depending on the desired end-product. 2) A term that can refer to the innermost portion of a cigar or the tobacco from which it is made. There are two types of filler, long filler and short filler.
Fillers various tobacco varieties, potentially from various origins, that are used in the manufacture of cigarettes to add volume rather than taste; fillers are very mild in taste.
Fire-Curing one of the four main methods of curing, where tobacco is subjected to wood smoke to dry. It is the type of wood used to smoke the tobacco leaves and the amount of smoke exposure that gives fire-cured tobacco leaves their distinctive flavours.
Flue-Cured Tobacco (FCV) a type of tobacco that is cured with artificial heat, after which it ranges from light yellow to dark orange in color and possesses a sweet aroma. It is sometimes referred to as bright leaf or Virginia tobacco.
Flue-Curing one of four main methods of curing where tobacco is dried in a closed building with furnace driven heat directed from pipes that extend from a furnace into the barn. The temperature of the furnace is gradually raised until the leaves and stems are completely dried. Flue-curing takes about a week and fixes the natural sugar of the leaf, which has a high sugar and a medium-to-high nicotine content.
Fumigation using chemicals to control and/or eliminate insects. When tobacco is stored, the storage facility must be fumigated to protect the tobacco from the damage insects can cause.
GLT green leaf threshing is a process of separating thresh from lamina.
Grade a letter, number, or some combination of the two that is given to tobacco as an indicator of its quality. The tobacco's stalk position, color, texture, elasticity, and leaf size are among the factors taken into account when determining its grade.
Grading tobacco is graded by famers based on climate conditions before it is sold at auction platforms. Stalk position, color, texture, elasticity, and leaf size are among the factors taken into account in the grading process.
Green Tobacco is not cured properly consequently remains green in color.
Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS) is an illness that can result from the absorption of nicotine through the skin when harvesting wet tobacco. It is characterized by headaches, nausea, vomiting and fluctuations in blood pressure and heart rate, among other symptoms.
Harvesting the process of collecting tobacco leaves from the field at the time when leaf maturity has reached its desired stage. FCV and Burley tobaccos are harvested in stages, meaning that individual leaves are removed from the stalk as they ripen, rather than all at once.
HDBRG Harvel De Bouxo Rio Grande
ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research is an autonomous organization under the department of agricultural research and education, ministry of agriculture, government of India.
Immature tobacco which is not matured (not reached its peak of ripeness).
Kilogram a unit of measurement in the metric system used in weighing tobacco also known as kilo.
Lamina the tobacco lying between the stem and veins of a leaf. This is the product separated during threshing. Lamina is removed as a “light” while the heavier stem is dropped to the next stage of threshing until all lamina is removed leaving only stem.
Light Soils one type of soils where tobacco is grown located in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Long Filler a large piece of the tobacco leaf that is used in making the innermost portion of cigar. Short filler is used in the same manner as long filler, but it is made up of relatively small pieces of leaf.
Lugs on a flue-cured tobacco plant, the second grouping of leaves from the ground, located near the middle of the stalk.
Manufacturer in the tobacco industry, the term manufacturer refers to any company that makes finished products from processed tobacco. These finished products include cigarettes, cigars, dry snuff and chewing tobacco.
Mature tobacco that has reached its peak of ripeness.
Midrib the smaller stem that extends from the main stalk of tobacco plant and divides each leaf from its base to its tip. In larger tobacco leaves, the midrib must be removed during processing.
Moisture Content the amount of water within tobacco leaves. High moisture content gives the leaves elasticity, whereas low moisture content makes the leaves brittle. For this reason, the moisture content of tobacco is carefully controlled so that handling, storing, and manufacturing does not detract from the tobacco's quality or cause it to break into smaller, less desirable pieces. Moisture content is essential to the fermentation process.
NBS Northern Black Soils are located Khammam, East & West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Nested tobacco for the purpose of increasing sale weight tobacco is packed in nested form make sure that only high-quality leaves are visible and poor-quality leaves are is concealed.
NNN N’-Nitroso Nornicotine
Non-Tobacco Material(NTM) any material other than tobacco that is inadvertently included with tobacco leaves, such as stones, glass, string, pieces of metal, etc. Removing non-tobacco related material during processing is called picking the tobacco.
North Block is located in East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh. Tobacco grown in this area is medium to heavy bodied, ripe open grained, orange to deep orange in color and fluffy in nature.
Offal the name given to the dust and minute tobacco pieces produced during processing; too small to be used in the manufacture of tobacco products, offal is disposed of along with non-tobacco-related material.
Packaging the final stage in tobacco processing where tobacco is packaged in bales or cardboard boxes; it is then either stored or transported to a manufacturer.
Pad a grouping of green tobacco leaves held together from natural compression due to handling or processing.
Picking removing non-tobacco-related material and undesirable leaves from tobacco during processing.
PPM Parts per million is the number of units of mass of a contaminant per million units of total mass.
Priming a method of harvesting that involves removing individual leaves from the tobacco stalk as they ripen rather than removing all of the leaves at once.
Primings also called sand leaves are the leaves located closest to the ground. Because of their proximity to the ground, these leaves often come in contact with sand and soil and, consequently, must be cleaned before they can be processed.
Processing a general term for all of the processes applied to tobacco after it has been cured and before it is used in the manufacture of tobacco products. Processing involves various stages, including blending, threshing, re-drying, and packaging.
Quota farmers are authorized to sell allotted quota of tobacco only on auction platforms. The quota system also provides an equal opportunity to all the growers to sell tobacco at fixed intervals.
Quintal a unit of mass in the metric system equal to 100 kilograms.
Raw Tobacco recently harvested tobacco that has not yet entered the curing phase.
Re-Drying involves removing moisture from the tobacco leaves by applying heat and then injecting the leaves with steam until a pre-determined moisture level is obtained.
Re-Grading also called Classification/Re-Classification at processing facilities tobacco is re-graded for accuracy to meet customer’s requirement before threshing.
RYO roll-your-own cigarettes are made by hand with cut tobacco and cigarette papers.
Sample a small quantity of tobacco (around two kilos) typically pulled from the process after the re-drying operation. The purpose of a sample is to provide a representation of the overall quality and color of the tobacco being processed and to ensure consistency and uniformity within the blend. Some time these samples are sent to manufactures.
Sand leaves also called primings are the leaves located closest to the ground. Because of their proximity to the ground, these leaves often come in contact with sand and soil (hence the name) and must be cleaned before they can be processed.
SBS Southern Black Soils are located in Prakasam and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Scrap results from handling tobacco during processing or manufacturing, whereas broken leaf results from handling that occurs prior to processing.
Shattery tobacco leaves that are dead or too dry are subsequently very brittle. The cell structure has either been damaged or destroyed in these leaves.
SLS Southern Light Soils are located in Prakasam and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh.
South Block is located in Prakasam and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh. Tobacco grown in this block is lemon to lemon orange in color, thin to medium bodied, ripe and open grain with good aroma and low in nicotine.
Stalk the primary stem of an entire tobacco plant. The position or location of a tobacco leaf on the stalk is one indicator of its quality.
Stem also called midrib a side shoot that extends from the tobacco plant's primary stalk and divides each leaf from its base to its tip. In larger tobacco leaves, the stem must be removed prior to processing.
Stemming also known as stripping, the process of removing stems from tobacco leaves.
Stringing the process of threading tobacco leaves onto a string so that the leaves can be hung up for curing. Using a needle, the stem is pierced near the base of the leaf and the string is then pulled through the hole. The spacing of the leaves on the string varies according to the type of tobacco and curing process.
Stripping also known as stemming, the process of removing stems from tobacco leaves.
Strips long pieces of leaf that have been threshed or cut away from the stem. At this point, the strips will be blended, compressed, and cut to produce rag.
Suckers side shoots that grow after the flowering head of a tobacco plant has been removed. Because suckers rely on the main plant for water and minerals, their growth can lower the quality of the main leaves. Suckers are removed when the quality of the plant justifies the labor and expense needed for their removal.
Sun-Curing one of four main methods of curing, where leaves are exposed to the sun to remove most of their moisture.
Tobacco Board Govt. of India established the Tobacco Board under an Act of Parliament in the year 1975 (brought to effect from 1.1.1976) and opened its head quarters at Guntur, Andhra Pradesh with a view to bring about an all-round development to the tobacco industry.
Thins a general term for tobacco leaves that grow on the lower half of the stalk; as their name implies, these leaves are thinner than the bodied tobacco that grows on the upper portion of the stalk.
Thresher a machine used in tobacco processing facilities to cut the blade of the leaf away from the stem.
Threshing a stage in tobacco processing that involves cutting the blade of the leaf away from the stem with a machine called a thresher, resulting in fairly small pieces of leaf blade suitable for use in cigarettes. The threshing process is a key operation in achieving particle size distribution of re-dried tobacco.
Tips the uppermost leaves on a tobacco plant.
Ton a unit of measurement in the metric system used in weighing tobacco. 1 ton = 1,000 kilos.
Topping the process of removing the flowering blooms that develop at the top of a tobacco stalk; part of the stalk and some of the topmost leaves may also be removed in the process. Topping can be done at various stages in the plant's development, but when done early and extensively the tobacco leaves will grow larger and heavier.
TSNA Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines are created through the burning, curing, and fermentation of tobacco leaf.
Variegated a term that applies to any tobacco in which the color is not uniform after curing. Variegated leaves remain green, yellow, or bleached in some places, while the rest of the leaf has the normal coloring of its type.
Virginia Tobacco also called bright leaf was originally grown in the U.S. state of Virginia. In India same tobacco is grown in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Whole Leaf this term refers to a tobacco leaf in its entirety, including both the blade and stem of the leaf. In contrast, the terms blade, lamina, and web refer only to the blade of the leaf and do not include the stem.